DF2012:Dwarf fortress mode
- Modding is not covered on this page.
Fortress mode is the more popular of two modes of gameplay in Dwarf Fortress, with the other mode being Adventure mode. It is often the mode implied when one talks about Dwarf Fortress. In fortress mode, you pick an embark location, and then assign your seven initial dwarves some starting skills, equipment, provisions, and animals to bring along. After preparations are complete and your hardy explorers embark, they'll be faced with the fortress site you picked down to every little detail, from geologically appropriate stone types to roaring waterfalls to ornery hippopotami. Rather than control individual dwarves, you design everything and your dwarves will go about implementing your designs on their own.
Dwarf Fortress mode is considered a construction and management simulation game. This entails that few goals are imposed upon the player by the programming.
The main goal, if it even can be called that, is to take your seven initial dwarves and expand them into a thriving community with skilled workers, battle-ready warriors and nobles. A player attempts to make their dwarves wealthy with fine crafts, valuable furniture, and precious gems, all the while protecting them from foes with deadly traps and a trained military. Avoiding an imminent death also requires making sure the dwarves have plenty of food and alcohol, by way of farms above and below ground, and are clothed in leather or cloth.
And do not forget the alcohol. Dwarves get very unhappy without a good, stiff drink when the urge hits.
 The World
To play Dwarf Fortress in fortress mode you must generate a world that includes a dwarven civilization. See World generation for detailed instructions. After at least one world has been generated you will be able to start the game. Only one game may be going on in a world at the same time.
 Geographic Features
The main features of a world are Biomes on the surface and Stone layers under the surface, some of which may contain Aquifers. Other surface features that are significant, but which aren't biomes strictly speaking, are Rivers, Volcanoes, and Caves.
There are also Caverns and magma seas everywhere underground which your dwarves will most likely encounter, but you can't see these on the world map and won't see them on the local map until you dig into them. There may also be other Fun things underground that you can't see. You will have to find these on your own, if they exist.
Every playable world will be inhabited by various Creatures, Civilizations, night creatures, and Megabeasts (including Titans and Forgotten beasts) in addition to your dwarves. Even if your dwarves are minding their own business they are practically guaranteed to encounter all of these types of inhabitants at some point in the form of wildlife, invaders, or rampaging forces of nature.
Given that your world includes creatures and civilizations capable of independent action, it also has a History that is viewable in Legends mode. Historical events will show up in Engravings and other artwork created by your dwarves. Historical dates are expressed in terms of the Dwarven Calendar.
You will also be making history as events occur in your fortress and these events will be recorded for all time in the annals of your world, even if you'd rather that they not be. These events may later become the subject of various Engravings and Decorations created by your dwarves or those in a later fortress.
Before starting to build a fortress you must pick a site, assign skill points to dwarves, and buy starting equipment. This is known as Embarking and is a major subject in and of itself. See the Embark guide for all of the details. Also see Starting build for more information on outfitting your expedition.
After you embark, the real game begins.
A guide on how to embark can be found here.
 Gameplay User Interface
Your main view of the in-game world is a top-down view of a multi-layered environment. You can move your view in the four main cardinal directions as well as up and down Z-levels (elevation) to see different layers. There is also a command menu that lets you issue commands that your dutiful dwarves will attempt to follow.
This section covers most of the screens and user interface elements used after embarking, at least in brief. It does not necessarily tell you how to accomplish every task you might need to, but instead just describes what you see on the screen and what various keystrokes do.
Later sections in this document and many other articles on this wiki help you tie all of this together by describing the sequence of actions needed to accomplish various things in the game; see Menu for a more detailed reference for the UI itself.
 Common UI Concepts
About Key Symbols
This document and most documents on the wiki use key symbols that look liketo indicate what keys are used for an operation. Note that these are case sensitive. In order to save space, + will be written as . So means "press the 't' key without the shift key" and means "hold down shift and press the 't' key". Sequences of keys will be written with dashes between them. So - - means "press 'a', then press 'b', then hold shift and press 'c'".
|Go back to the previous screen/menu|
|Change active menu option or move cursor|
|Alternate menu selection keys|
|Select menu option|
Sometimes you use the directional keysand to make menu selections, but sometimes you will need to use the alternate selection keys ( and ) to make menu selections. Generally speaking, when dealing with menus, if the directional keys don't work try / .
will almost always take you back to the previous screen until you get to the top level of the UI, at which point it will display the options menu.
 Pausing and Resuming
|Pause/Unpause the game|
All but one (the *PAUSED* appear in the upper left corner of the window when the game is paused. Certain announcements will pause the game automatically and you will have to unpause it manually to proceed.quads command) of the commands will automatically pause the game when you initiate them, but if you want to pause or unpause the game without initiating a command use . You will see
 Main Screen
|or||Zoom in and out|
|Toggle mini-map and command menu.|
|Toggle fullscreen mode|
The screen at the top level of the user interface hierarchy consists of the main map, a command window, and an overview mini-map area along with a few status indicators around the edge. While the main map is always visible at the top level of the UI, you can use thekey to show and hide the command window and overview map areas, giving you more space to view the main map if desired.
 Options Screen
|Enter options menu (if at top level)|
|Move back up one UI level (if not at top level)|
Assuming you are at the top level of the user interface looking at the map, you can hitto enter the options menu. This allows you to do things like save or abandon your game.
- Return to Game - Exit the options menu. You can also just press .
- Save Game - Saves the game and exits to the main menu screen.
- Key Bindings - A UI for changing the Key bindings
- Export Local Image - Use this to export each level of your map as .BMP files for use on such things as the Dwarf Fortress Map Archive
- Music and Sound - Options related to the Music
- Abandon the Fortress (or Succumb to Invasion) - This abandons the fortress and then saves the map to the world's data files for later use. Once you abandon a fort, all of your dwarves cease to exist, all of your livestock dies, and all items including corpses will be scattered around the map before it is saved. This is how you "give up" on a fortress. You might later reclaim the fortress with a new group of dwarves or visit it with an adventurer in Adventurer mode.
 Main Map
|( + )||Move map view around|
|(keypad)||Move map view around|
|Move one Z-level up or down.|
|Zoom to starting location (default hotkey)|
The main map window is what you will be looking at the majority of the time. This is where all of the action happens.
While the play area itself is three-dimensional, the window is not; you can only view one Z-level at a time. You can change which Z-Level is currently displayed using and .
On the far right side of the screen is the depth bar showing you the approximate depth, below or above ground, of the current Z-level that the map is displaying. This indicator is relative to the surface, so it will change if you move the map around a map with a non-flat surface, even if you don't press or .
 Map Cursor
|(keypad)||Move map cursor 1 tile|
|Move map cursor 1 tile|
|+ direction key||Move map cursor 10 tiles|
After entering a command that involves the map cursor (
X), you can use as well as the numeric keypad keys to move the cursor around horizontally and diagonally. If you hold while pressing one of these, the cursor will move 10 tiles instead of one enabling you to move it more quickly.
 Overview Map
The overview mini-map shows a compact version of the entire available map area. This can be useful especially if your embark zone is very large. After the fortress has settled into certain areas of the map, its utility decreases and it can be hidden withto provide more space for the main map.
A cursor that looks like
X on the overview map shows approximately what part of the map you are viewing in the main map window. Parts of the map inhabited by dwarves will be highlighted in blue.
 Status Indicators
In the upper left corner of the screen you may see some report flags indicating that new combat-related Reports have been generated. The flags are:
Press reports screen and once you do the flags will be reset.to view the new reports in the
There is also an Idle counter, usually in the upper right, indicating how many dwarves are milling around uselessly, in need of something productive to do.
A FPS (Frames Per Second) counter may also be present on the screen if it has been enabled. It is disabled by default. See Frames per second for more information on what this counter means, as well as how to enable/disable it.
 Command Window
This is where key menus and most of the textual information about tiles and buildings is displayed. You can toggle it between single width, double width, and hidden using. The double-width option is particularly useful when lines of text are too long to fit. Once you become very familiar with the UI you may want to hide it completely; it will reappear as needed when you activate a command.
The most important interfaces that use the command window are listed below. Many of these encompass a wide variety of functionality so they will not be fully described here. See the linked articles for more details on how they are used.
 Your Dwarves
Your dwarves are the creatures who implement your designs in between periods of drinking, eating, partying, drinking again, sleeping, and entertaining themselves. While you do not have full control of your dwarves, you have more control over them than any other creatures. Be aware that it is not necessarily always the case that a dwarf is friendly; insane dwarves, weredwarves or vampires are anything but.
 Eating, Drinking, and Sleeping
Dwarves need food to eat, alcohol to drink (water is a poor substitute), and time to sleep. If only one of these is available, it better be alcohol; while water will keep dwarves alive, they will actually work more slowly and get unhappy thoughts (see below) if they don't get alcohol to drink.
Dwarves will also get unhappy thoughts if forced to eat a single type of food or drink a single type of alcohol all the time, so variety is also important. Dwarves will get unhappy thoughts if forced to sleep on the floor.
While going about their day, dwarves will get happy and unhappy thoughts depending on what sorts of things happen to them. This will nudge their happiness levels up or down each time one occurs to them. If they become too unhappy they may throw tantrums or go completely berserk, killing and destroying things.
 Children and Immigration
Periodically new dwarves from the outside world will migrate to your fortress, drawn by tales of, and looking to share in, your wealth and success. Female dwarves will also get pregnant and have children if they are married.
 Jobs, Labors and Skills
Any adult dwarf can perform any labor even if they have no skill in that area. Unskilled dwarves will simply be slow and not very good at what they are trying to do. With practice, dwarves will acquire skill, become faster and better at their jobs. A lack of practice for long periods leads to skill "rust".
Nobles are dwarves who have special positions within your organization. Some of these are appointed such as your broker and bookkeeper, but others such as Mayor are essentially forced on you by conditions in the game. See the main article on Nobles for more information.
Assuming they somehow manage to avoid starving, dehydrating, freezing, drowning, burning, falling, being crushed, or otherwise suffering fatal wounds or infections, your dwarves will inevitably die of old age. Unfortunately they are a bit picky about how they are buried or otherwise memorialized, and they will cause trouble if they are unsatisfied with their remembrance. Corpses lying around also pose a hazard if there are necromancers in the area.
A Healthcare industry might help your wounded dwarves postpone death.
- Main article: Mining
All of the digging operations are considered Mining. Even if your goal is simply to dig out a passage and you don't care about extracting ore, your miners will be generating stone as a byproduct unless they are digging through soil. See Stone management for ways to deal with all the unwanted stone.
All digging operations are done using theesignations menu.
 Digging Out Tunnels and Spaces
|-||Designate area to mine|
This is what you use to dig out tunnels and larger spaces underground. See designating an area to be mined. Note that you can not mine constructions. Instead you must remove them with - . (See below.)
|-||Dig out a Channel|
A Channel is a hole dug in the floor which will mine out the z-level below too. Channeling an area will dig out the designated tile (if it hasn't been dug out already), the floor of that tile, and the tile below, possibly leaving a Ramp on the tile below. See Channel for more information.
 Stairways and Ramps
|-||Designate an upward stairway|
|-||Designate a downward stairway|
|-||Designate an up and down stairway|
|-||Designate an upward ramp|
See Stair and Ramp. Note that digging a stairway will not automatically create a stairway on the z-level above and/or below, but it will make it possible to dig another stairway immediately above and/or below.
 Removing Things
|-||Remove upward stairs/ramps|
|-||Remove a construction|
These allow you to dig away upward ramps and stairs, and demolish constructed walls and floors. See Remove for full details.
 Water and Magma
While digging around you may encounter Water or Magma, so be on the lookout for damp stone and warm stone. Digging into water or magma in the wrong place can completely flood your fort to the point where it is unrecoverable, so be careful where you dig.
- Main article: Stockpile
Stockpiles are where dwarves will store items of various types. Dwarves with the corresponding "hauling" job on will seek out items that aren't already on a stockpile that accepts them and carry them to the appropriate stockpile. See the main Stockpile article for detailed information on setting up stockpiles.
 Rooms, Furniture, and Portals
To remove one of these, use the stockpile if one exists.command, place the cursor on the item to remove, and hit . This will mark the item for removal and a hauling job will be queued. Eventually a dwarf will show up and haul the item off to a
|-||place Armor Stand|
|-||place Chair or Throne (seat)|
|-||place Burial Receptacle (coffin)|
|-||place Weapon Rack|
|- +||place memorial Slab|
|-||place Traction Bench|
Assuming that dwarves have already made a piece of Furniture, they can install it somewhere using one of these commands.
 Defining Rooms
- Main article: Room
Certain types of furniture placed in an area can allow the area to be defined as a Room using . The command can also be used to undefine rooms, with or without removing the associated furniture.
 Doors and Hatches
|-||place floor Hatch|
 Windows, Grates, and Bars
|-||place Wall grate|
|-||place floor Grate|
|-||place vertical Bars|
|- +||place floor Bars|
|-||place glass window|
|-||place gem window|
Walls, Floors, and Stairs are removed with- . Bridges and roads are removed with .
 Walls, Floors, and Stairs
|-||build Constructions submenu|
|- -||build Constructed Wall|
|- -||build Constructed Floor|
|- -||build Constructed upward Ramp|
|- -||build Constructed Up Stair|
|- -||build Constructed Down Stair|
|- -||build Constructed up and down Stair|
|- -||build Constructed Fortification|
- Main article: Construction
Constructions are features that are built in place rather than created in a workshop and installed or carved out of existing rock. Constructions are how you build above-ground structures or structures in any other place where there's no rock or soil to carve them out of.
Constructions are usually built out of, and thus require, Stone or Wood, but you can also use a variety of materials (such as metal) to build them. Possible constructions include Floors, Walls, Stairs, Ramps, and Fortifications.
|-||build a bridge|
A Bridge is not only used to cross rivers or chasms, but can also be used as a large door when built as a drawbridge. Such use requires that a Lever be linked to it in order for dwarves to control its open or closed state.
|-||build Paved road|
|-||build Dirt road|
Roads are most commonly used to give caravans a reliable path to your fortress from the map's edge, though they don't really require one. A paved road is much like a floor except that it requires fewer raw materials per tile to build. A dirt road requires no materials to build, but deteriorates over time.
- Main article: Trading
When you want to obtain things not available on your map, and you don't want to just kill people to get them, Trading is the way to go about it. See the main article for everything you ever wanted to know about legitimately and non-violently obtaining things from other creatures.
 Military and Combat
The military is one of the most important aspects of a successful fortress. Even with many traps, drawbridges and other defenses, your military will still need to fend off goblin sieges, megabeasts, titans, and fiendish underground beasties. Using a combination of squad orders and scheduling, you can set up an elaborate offensive, defensive, or balanced military structure for your well-equipped soldiers to follow. Turning your dwarves from useless migrants into bloodthirsty killing machines never hurts (unless you're the enemy).
 Hospitals and Healthcare
- Main article: Healthcare
Normally your dwarves do just fine assuming they get enough food and alcohol, but sometimes they get wounded. When this happens they can benefit from an efficient Healthcare system.
- Main article: Burrow
Burrows are optional user-defined areas in your fort where selected dwarves live and work. Dwarves will only use workshops, dig walls, use rooms, etc. in burrows they are assigned to, though dwarves not assigned to any burrow will still use workshops etc. even if they are located in a burrow assigned to some other dwarves.
Burrows are by no means required, but are useful when you want to restrict certain dwarves to certain areas of the map.
- Main article: Macros and Keymaps
Macros allow recording sequences of keystrokes and "playing" them back into the user interface as desired. Since the game often requires using a lot of repetitive keystrokes, this can sometimes make life much easier. See the main article for full information.