Buildings can be constructed by your dwarves. Buildings have all sorts of uses. The construction of a building requires resources that you can select when building.
A building is a structure that can be placed from the build menu and then interacted with by the Set Building Tasks/Prefs command, and the View Items in Buildings command . Included in this are workshops, doors, trade depots, furniture, bridges, traps -- most of the interesting stuff your dwarves will build!
Most buildings are made from raw materials or blocks, although some workshops require some additional finished items as well.
Some buildings are placed furniture; a cage or throne sitting in a stockpile is just furniture and can be moved by haulers, washed away by flooding, etc., but when built they become a building that can be interacted with. (Or, what seems more accurate to say, a new building is created and the original furniture becomes part of that building's permanent inventory.) Some buildings can be used to define rooms.
Buildings should be considered distinct from constructions. While both are built via the b build menu, constructions are inert to q and t, are removed by designation, and are generally more similar to terrain features. Furthermore, dwarves can place buildings on constructed floors, but buildings cannot overlap other buildings, nor can constructions overlap other constructions. Also constructions provide support while buildings do not.
 List of buildings
|Workshops • Furnaces|
|Rooms|| Barracks • Bedroom • Dining room • Dormitory|
Jail • Meeting hall • Hospital • Office • Sculpture garden • Tomb • Zoo
|Furniture||Animal trap • Anvil • Armor stand • Bed • Bin • Bucket • Cabinet • Cage • Coffin • Container • Restraint • Seat • Statue • Table • Weapon rack|
|Access||Door • Floodgate • Bars • Grate • Floor hatch • Bridge • Road • Window|
|Constructions||Fortification • Floor • Stairs • Ramp • Wall|
|Machine & Trap parts|| Axle • Gear assembly • Millstone • Screw pump • Water wheel • Windmill • Lever|
Pressure plate • Trap • Support
|Other Buildings||Archery target • Kennel • Shop • Siege engine • Trade depot • Wagon • Well|
|Related Articles||Design strategies • Bedroom design • Cave-in • Computing • Furniture industry|
All information taken from the 40d section as it was still accurate. Only the table of building was added to.